Musing 001

Observing, thinking, questioning, sketching…
As part of a new series I will post my general musings on all things wayfinding related. First up an idea for a new sketchbook of my musings. Over the coming weeks I will be exploring how you can begin to uncover the ‘hidden logic’ of an environment and how we view the spaces we inhabit.

Sketchbook cover – Uncovering the ‘hidden logic’.

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Pictograms, International Communication and Cultural Diversity (Part 4)

Pictogram Examples Continued
Thankfully, very little is uniform from country to country. In his book World Without Words, Michael Evamy states that it is a great misconception to assume that graphic information becomes magically accessible to everyone, everywhere when you remove words. Our
interpretation of symbols depends greatly on what cultural baggage we unpack in the process. Sign systems that Western nations take for granted in public spaces are being modified in non-Western countries to make more sense to local inhabitants. Indian hospitals have adopted symbol-based signs, a welcomed system in a country where literacy is low. According to Evamy India is home to 14 different languages and 1600 individual dialects. Indian signs are also unique in the fact that they reflect their cultural context extremely accurately. Divisions of wealth, class and gender demand additional signs to those of just man and woman. A symbol for “rural man” is also used and there are separate signs for ‘male queue’ and ‘female queue’. These signs are obviously discriminatory, but are typical of attitudes prevalent in Indian society. These pictograms are successful because they passively reflect existing cultural customs.

Male Queue Female Queue
Male and Female Queue Pictograms

Rural Man Man
Rural Man and Man Pictograms

The Indian signs clearly cross language barriers very successfully, but do not necessarily target an ‘international’ audience. The best examples of this are present in pictograms for airports and stations. According to Iconographic (1978, p.18) many people have complained about the haphazard way in which international signing has been allowed to develop. International signing has in increased greatly in number, but what is particularly of interest is the way in which designers from all parts of the world have created very similar results. Airport signing, in particular uses similar working methods, graphic ingredients and appearance, but there are striking stylistic differences in many examples.

Arrivals Pictogram Variations

Olympic Pictograms
The Olympic games are one of the greatest sources to look at in terms of international communication using pictograms. There are not only thousands of existing pictograms, but with each games being held in a different country, it is easy to compare how different cultures approach the design of the symbols. Each set of pictograms is representing the same Olympic events yet they look so very different. The reasons behind the diversity of the pictograms is not only based on culture, but also changes in attitude and design throughout time. By taking just five different Olympic games and looking at how they represent some of the sports, specific influences become clear. By looking at the pictograms chronologically, it becomes obvious how the designs are affected as attitudes and style changes. Very loosely speaking, the pictograms of the Olympics have become more abstract and ‘contemporary’
over the last few decades. This could be down to popular design culture and the emergence of more abstract art forms. It could just as easily be that as pictograms have become more popular in society, their design has been able to break from traditional standards.

From top to bottom: Munich 1972, Seoul 1988, Sydney 2000, Athens 2004, Beijing 2008

The whole idea of the Olympics is not just bringing nations together and celebrating sporting events. There is also the side of the Olympics that embraces the host nation. These countries have a great opportunity to say something about themselves. They can do this in many ways, one of which is through visual identity and design. Along with the emblem or logo, pictograms can say a lot about the culture and history of the host nation. Otl Aicher’s designs for Munich 72 are seen by many, as the most influential. They set a future standard for the design of pictograms. The forms were basic, minimised and extremely geometric. They were almost as consistent as an alphabet. Otl Aicher’s criteria for a good pictogram included: culturally neutrality, legibility and awareness of cultural taboos. It is clear that his views were a strong influence in the design of the Olympic pictograms, but where did these opinions come from? Typical Germanic style was very rigid and German culture was full of rules and standards. His style and the Ulm College of design, which he founded, were a response to post-war needs in Germany. Indirectly culture and historical events are visible in the design of pictograms through the society and era the designer grew up in. Influences on the designer become part of their designs.

In the Olympics since the new millennium, cultural influences have become stronger than ever. Sydney depicted the modern pentathlon using the stars of the Australian flag, instead of dots. It also took strong influence form Aboriginal Australians. Arms and legs were represented in the shape of the boomerang, an article specifically recognised as being Australian. The Athens Olympics in 2004 were clearly inspired by elements of Ancient Greece. According to Rayan Abdullah in his book Pictograms, Icons and Signs, the depiction of the athletes drew inspiration from the black-figure vases typical of ancient Greece and Cycladic marble statues were also a clear influence with their elegant and dynamic forms.

Greek Black Figure Vase and Cycladic Marble Statue

Released on 7th August 2006, the Beijing pictograms have a clear influence.

“… with strokes of seal characters as their basic form, the Pictograms of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games integrate pictographic charm of inscriptions on bones and bronze objects in ancient China with simplified embodiment of modern graphics, making them recognizable, rememberable and easy to use.”

The pictograms have cleverly used the effect of sharp contrast, typical of Chinese
traditional artistic form of rubbings. They display distinct motion character, elegant visual perception of movement and cultural connotations. It is clear that in the 21st century host nations are really taking pride in their heritage. The pictograms are not just providing information about events, but about the area they are being placed.

Ancient Chinese Writing Styles

More recently the release of the London 2012 pictograms have sparked much discussion, a topic that could have it’s own blog entry…

Coming soon Part 5: Case Study – The Work of Lance Wyman

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SDS Launch New Website

SDS logo
The Sign Design Society has been working hard behind to scenes to update their existing web presence. This week they launched their new look website and brand new forum!

The society may use the word sign in their title, but don’t but fooled into thinking this is all the society is about. The SDS boasts members from all types of backgrounds and communities including: graphic designers, wayfinding consultants, manufacturers, academics, human factors experts and students.

As a member I will admit that I rarely used the old website. I used it to check on new events and have a general peruse, but that was it. It wasn’t that the original site was particularly bad, it just didn’t encourage any interaction between the site and it’s members. It was a great place to find out information, but not a place to share knowledge and experiences or spark a discussion.

Not only is the new website bigger, bolder and more functional, but it offers a more accessible, informative and interactive service. Anyone with an interest in wayfinding can sign up to the website and use the basic functions, however members can make full use of it’s major new features:

  • Membership is now available online and subscriptions can be renewed very easily. Members can review their personal information – e.g. to change an email address, and indicate preferences in online polls and surveys
  • Members receive automatic reminders 14 days before their membership expires, ensuring that your membership is always up to date.
  • Forums are more accessible with special pages for Employment Opportunities where members can advertise vacancies, and for Member to Member communications.
  • Booking Tickets for events has been made easier. Members can reserve their places using a simple on-line booking form, whilst non-members can buy tickets to attend talks and events with a few mouse clicks
  • The Book Shop is easily accessible and offers discounted prices to Members of the Society.
  • Previous talks are now archived, with powerpoint presentations viewable on-line. This immensely valuable members-only resource will be expanded and experimentation with video recordings of talks is being considered.
  • Members can now comments on talks and events.

The SDS has members from around the globe and for me the main advantage of the new site is that it provides a place where everyone can come together. The monthly talks are a great way of interacting with the wayfinding community, but as they are held in London it limits who can attend. The new site allows members from all parts of the world to download content, comment and discuss the monthly events.

Over the coming months I will be working closely with the SDS steering group to look at ways to encourage more member participation on the site, in particular through the use of the forums.

Check out the new site at

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Brighton Signage

After a trip to Brighton to dip my toe in the sea and escape the city I took a few photographs of the wayfinding system designed by AIG. Visit my Flickr page to see the full set.

Brighton Wayfinding Signage
Close-up of totem by the sea front.

Brighton Wayfinding Signage

Brighton Wayfinding Signage
Fold-out map available at tourist information centres.

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User Centric Design and Inclusivity – designing for every situation.

Anyone who works on wayfinding projects in the transportation sector will know that it is important to design a system that is centred around the passenger and is inclusive, but can you ever really satisfy 100% of passengers 100% of the time?

Wayfinding is user focused and a good system understands the needs of everyone who will move through the space. On a recent project I have been working quite closely with a team of Human Factors specialists who are heavily focused on human interactions. In a recent discussion we began to debate just how far you need to go to satisfy the needs of everyone in every possible scenario.

Resources such as the Sign Design Guide, DfT’s Inclusive Mobility and other accessibility guides are great at providing guidance when designing wayfinding systems, but they are obviously very focused on people and often centred around the physical design elements of the system. When it comes to deciding on a clear strategy for an airport, rail station, city or any environment it is ultimately down to the designer to make a call based on their knowledge and experience.

My argument with my colleagues was that if you try to think of every possible scenario the building would be packed with information that 99.9% of the passengers would not need 99.9% of the time. Meeting the needs of 100% of the passengers for 100% of the time creates a situation where there is too much information on display, which subsequently serves only to confuse the majority of passengers.

Is information overload just as confusing as a lack of information?

During a workshop, we were trying to document different user profiles (both departing and arriving) to determine decision points and information needs throughout the building:

  • Passengers of reduced mobility – wheelchairs, the elderly, pushchairs, heavy luggage, partially sighted, hearing impaired etc.
  • Irregular user – tourists
  • Regular users – commuters, locals.

We also drew up a list of key operational scenarios:

  • Peak/off peak periods
  • Emergency situations
  • Disruptions to the normal services offered in the building
  • Closure of parts of the building.

But what about all the other ‘freak’ events and ‘what if’ scenarios.

What if someone with a heavy bag decides to take the escalator, but when they realise there is an additional level to descend, they decide to take the lift halfway through their journey. This scenario isn’t really planned for in the pedestrian routing as it is assumed that passengers will either use the lift throughout the journey or not at all, but in a building with lots of level changes this scenario may not be uncommon!

Do these scenarios require additional signage or could lighting, colour or supergraphics be used cleverly to help highlight facilities and aid intuitive wayfinding?

Seattle Library
Use of lighting and colour at Seattle Library, Image Credit: Esther Harlow

Seattle Library
Use of supergraphics at Seattle Library Car Park, Image Credit: Nikki Hempen De Ramirez

Market St Station
Use of colour at Market St Station, Image Credit: Ryan Behner

Some members of the project team were keen to provide exact instructions in this type of scenario so that the route to the lifts was extremely clear, but I believe that sometimes we have to give the passengers a little credit.

Do passengers really need everything written for them in black and white or can we trust them to use a little common sense?

There are the scenarios that have an even smaller chance of happening. For example where routes through the building need to be dramatically changed or if staff areas need to be used temporarily. Is additional fixed signage really the answer to a temporary issue? I suggested that there were other alternatives such as:

  • Temporary notices/posters
  • Public announcements
  • Staff supervision/guidance
  • Temporary physical barriers (retractable belt barriers etc)

What I was trying to communicate to the rest of the team was that although traditional signage has it’s place in wayfinding systems, it is not the only way to encourage human behaviours. Wayfinding isn’t just signage, it is a process which can include the use of all kinds of sensory cues. Sometimes we have to rely on people being able to use there intuition. We can influence movement within an environment with much more than just physical instructions and in scenarios that have a small chance of actually occuring, it is maybe better to provide helpful cues (colour, lighting, graphics, announcements, staff guidance) rather than create a confusing and cluttered environment. We must recognise the needs of all types of passengers in different scenarios, but we must consider the effects of providing additional information on the overall wayfinding system and produce design solutions that are fit for purpose.

Feel free to let me know your thoughts on this topic…

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Pictograms, International Communication and Cultural Diversity (Part 3)

Pictogram Examples
The history of pictograms illustrated the problems and criticisms faced in the past and explained how pictograms work. It did not demonstrate how pictograms can have personality, or vary in style from culture to culture. By using examples I hope to demonstrate a variety of ways in which pictogram designs are influenced. This includes looking at a period in time, culture, surroundings, art & design and even laws and regulations.

It is true to say that some pictograms show no cultural identity or personality in their design. They are standardised, uniform, and common to more than one culture. For example the skull and crossbones is still the most commonly used standard symbol for poison and the ATM now has an official global pictogram. In some cases, the message the pictogram is conveying is extremely important. In these circumstances, rules, regulations and even laws govern the symbols that are used. From the 1st January 1997 a new harmonised European standard on fire extinguishers BS EN3 came into effect. It provided a single standard for fire extinguishers across Europe and replaced the old British Standard BS 5423. Many associations set standards on how information is communicated using pictures. ISO 7001, “Graphical symbols for use on public information signs”, is a set of international symbols based on the Isotype system of pictograms. ISO 9186 is a method for user testing of symbols to find out which communicate the intended meaning most readily to most people. There are two main techniques for testing: a comprehensibility judgment test and a comprehension test. Only pictograms with exceptionally high comprehensibility in numerous countries can become part of the ISO 7001 set.

ISO 7001
ISO Pictogram Examples

Symbols relating to the classification, packaging and labeling of dangerous substances, is another area particularly influenced by rules. Council Directive 67/548/EEC of the 27th June 1967 is the main European Union Law concerning chemical safety. In all these instances, injecting personality or cultural meaning into the pictogram, would serve no meaning. It would only distract from the very important messages they are trying to communicate. The aim is that despite the language spoken by the interpreter, the critical information is communicated.

Toxic Symbol
Toxic Symbol

Many people agree pictograms should meet standards. Aicher the ultimate pragmatist said that design must surrender to practical criteria and the examples shown so far have demonstrated that there are instances where pictograms do have to be standard or rigid in their design, but this is not true in all cases. Being so rigid in all forms of pictogram design would have negative effects. Information in public spaces such as airports, hospitals or subways need to be efficient and clear in the way they communicate, but there is a lot more room for them to display qualities that are more personal or culturally specific. Luckily not all designers share the belief that pictograms must be standardised and this has opened the door for more creative design approaches. Some variations of standard signs are subtle. They are not specific to certain cultures and the changes are not influenced by any particular idea. These quirks do not necessarily say anything about where they are from or who designed them, but start to demonstrate how individual a pictogram can be. The man at work sign/roadworks demonstrates this concept. It is the same standard sign, but with variations from country to country. The man wears different headgear, is bent over at a different angles and has a different shaped tools, but does this really make any difference to the overall message?

Toxic Symbol
Man at Work Symbol

More examples on there way…watch this space!

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Pictograms, International Communication and Cultural Diversity (Part 2)

Background History Continued…
The notion of an international language fascinated many, but often entailed creating new spoken or written languages. Examples of this include Esperanto, Ido, and Interlingua, but it was not until the 1930’s and the workings of Austrian educator and philosopher Otto Neurath, that using pictures for international communication was thoroughly researched. With the help of illustrator Gerd Arntz, Neurath produced Isotype (International System of Typographic Picture Education). It dealt with internationally stylised diagrams, charts, text illustrations and public information.

Chart from Neurath’s International Picture Language (1936)

Neurath’s work may not have reached his own expectations, but it is a source of inspiration for many graphic designers and has contributed to the development of pictograms and indirectly to the rise of ‘infographics’.

Industry and manufacturing has also played a part in the rise of the pictogram. They started appearing in connection with various industrial products in the late 60’s early 70’s. Among these trend setters were Siemens household appliances, Philips audiovisual equipment and Toyota automobiles. Manufacturers realised the potential of pictograms in their instruction manuals. There was an obvious economic advantage in only having to produce one multilingual version for each product. Corporations also picked up on this notion of multilingual communication through an image. Logos and corporate identities, although not quite pictograms, use the same basic principle. Today car manuals, flat pack instructions and remote controls still use pictorial representations to communicate information. For example Ikea and Hewlett Packard use barely any words in their assembly instructions.

Ikea Instructions

The Olympic Games have thousands of pictograms associated with them. With the summer, winter, and Paralympic games the amount of resources on pictograms is endless. There are not only pictograms representing the individual sports, but also services and facilities and in some of the games, cultural symbols too. The Berlin 1936 games brought forth the first Olympic pictograms and again a set was created for the 1948 London Olympics, but the real push towards pictograms similar to the modern concept, was the Tokyo 1964 Olympic Games. From that point onwards the design of Olympic pictograms went from strength to strength. Amongst the most famous examples are the work of Lance Wyman in Mexico 1968, Otl Aicher in Munich 1972 and not forgetting the recent release of the London 2012 pictogram set!

2012 Pictograms

Background History Concluded
Ideograms, hieroglyphics and similar symbols lost ground for centuries as literacy increased. Once upon a time there was a stigma attached to pictograms. It was believed by some that pictograms were for people of lesser intelligence or those who were illiterate. More recently, it is language that has become an unwelcome barrier in a fast moving 20th century. It’s popularity throughout history may have changed from era to era, but now pictograms are more popular than ever. Worldwide mobility and international communication have become part of our lives. Pictures have found their way back. Their uses seem endless, but will they meet our expectations and will they withstand the test of time?

COMING SOON…PART 3 – Can style, personality or cultural identity be shown in pictograms?

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Pictograms, International Communication and Cultural Diversity (Part 1)

The world increasingly seems a smaller place, now more than ever there is a need for forms of communication that will cross all language and cultural barriers, but does this mean that signs that cater for international users cannot have any individual personality or style? If languages can have accents and dialects, why can’t pictograms? Is it possible for pictograms to retain national characteristic, but still communication to international audiences effectively?

In the 1970’s Otl Aicher stated that pictograms should be culturally neutral and not offend cultural taboos, however he also suggested that as pictograms become more familiar then abstraction could take place.

What are Pictograms?
There are many ways in which pictograms have been described:

  • “An element of a system of absolute validity.” – Otto Neurath
  • “It must have the character of a sign and should not be an illustration.” – Otl Aicher
  • “It is an iconic sign that depicts the character of what is being represented.”– H.W. Kapitzki
  • ” The purpose of a pictogram is to make our lives easier and safer. For a pictogram to work it must be instantly recognisable and understood by all. Therefore the image must be kept simple and consistent.” – Transport for London

Background History
The idea of an international picture language is not something that is new, neither is the use of pictures to communicate. Pictures predate typographic interpretation of spoken language as a means of communicating information. The first evidence of recorded pictures were cave paintings dating as far back as 20,000 BC, but these were considered purely decorative with no complex meaning.

Cave Painting Lascaux

True written communication is thought to have been developed much later by the Sumerians, around 3500 B.C. They recorded stories and preserved records using simple drawings of everyday objects, these were the first real pictograms. Many ancient civilizations used pictures of some description to communicate to one another, tell stories or create identity. Hieroglyphics, coats of arms, and vignettes are a few examples, but these forms of pictorial communication had very little to do with the development of international communication or reaching a wider readership. Their purpose was simply to communicate to one another and make records.

 Sumerian Pictorial Symbols

Transport systems have played a huge part in the development of pictograms. In 1909, the first international convention on road signs was organised in Paris. The first four common road signs were standardised. It was the germ of a series of conventions, protocols, and projects. These symbols were internationally agreed by European countries and are virtually unchanged today. In 1968, an international treaty was designed to increase road safety and aid international road traffic. It did this by standardizing the signs, lights and markings.

Air and rail travel have also played an important role. Airports and train stations are now places of international exchange and pictograms have become the perfect solution to possible communication barriers. According to Paul Mijksenaar a dogma was created that suggested pictograms served only to produce commutative noise and were inferior to what was seen as unambiguous text. In 1967, a new sign system for Amsterdam’s Schiphol Airport did not include pictograms and was unchanged until the early 90’s.

 Amsterdam Schiphol Now
Image credit: Trevor May

Transport has had a clear effect on the development and use of pictograms, but this was not instant. It has not been until more recently, that some systems have begun to break away from standard forms and realised the potential of pictures. The designs of Toan Vu-Huu for the Cologne Bonn Airport shows a vast change from previous efforts. What makes the Cologne Bonn Airport unique is that it lies midway between two large and established airports. Rather than competing with these airports, Cologne Bonn carved out its own unique space.

Cologne Bonn Airport
Image credit: Toan Vu Huu

PART 2 – Background History Continued…Isotype, Ikea and Olympic Pictograms.

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Stephen Walter’s Magnificent Maps

During a visit to the Magnificent Maps Exhbition at the British Library on Sunday, I came across some pretty impressive maps. With objects dating back from the 1400’s to the present day there was an array of different styles ranging from the largest atlas in the world (Klencke 1660) to a poster designed to explain the historical and cultural importanceof tea (Macdonald Gill 1940)! Amonst all these objects, it was one of the more modern geographic depictions that seemed to capture the most attention.

The Island
The Island is not concerned with geographic accuracy, nor is it about helping people to find their way, but don’t be fooled into thinking it a purely aestetical art piece. There is so much to discover in this map. Stephen has used his knowledge of London to give this map a very personal touch. With witty anacdotes and observations, quirky doodles (partiularly liked the doodles to represent Elephant & Castle and Waterloo) and pictograms for all sorts of landmarks ranging from football stadiums to public houses, I could have spent all day studying this map. The great thing about it was watching people’s reaction to it. Almost instantly people would be drawn to areas of London they were familiar with, laughing in unison as they read Stephen’s comments and nodded in agreement. Knowing London definately makes this map a more enjoyable read as a personal connection between the map and the viewer is made.
The Island

“London is one of the great living palimpsests of our time. Its layers of history and its constant energy to re-invent itself fuels this vast grey magnet. I was spurd on by the great Map Makers of London’s past – John Roque, Greenwood and Phyllis Pearsall (the originator of the A-Z). Informed by my own insights and knowledge, I combined further research on the Internet and through writers such as Peter Ackroyd and Ian Sinclair. The resulting map, a spoof of the historical ones of old, would challenge the first impressions of its viewer; touching on the Capital’s vastness, its secrets and its undercurrents. With this process in mind, I began to edit the information, keeping what I felt were historically important, interesting, relevant and amusing. These fantastical additions and epithets are purposefully innocent and acidic, trivial and serious. The Map is as much about the personality of its viewer than it is about of my own. In other words it acts as a mirror.” – Stephen Walter

Other Works
This is not the first time Stephen has created a map of this nature. Back in 2008 he did a very similar thing for the English city of Liverpool.
Map of Liverpool
As well as his very stylised geographical interprtations, Stephen has done some interesting Photography and Mixed Media projects. For more information on Stephen Walter and his range of projects visit his website.

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Edward Tufte: Beautiful Evidence

When I couldn’t get tickets to see the sell out Intelligence Squared lecture by Edward Tufte it is fair to say I was a little disappointed, but this story gets better! Thanks to David McCandless and a competition on Information is Beautiful I was lucky enough to win a golden ticket! So on Wednesday 19th I wandered over to the Royal Geographic Society to see Tufte’s talk “Beautiful Evidence”, which is also the title of his latest book.

Beautiful Evidence

The room was packed with a good mix of people. Seats filled up thick and fast and an ordely queue formed for the legends autograph. The lecture started promptly at 7pm. At first Tufte seemed a little uncomfortable reading from his notes and the whole thing felt a little contrived, but when he got into the main part of the presentation where he explained his concepts and principles he relaxed a lot more and for me this is when the lecture became a lot more comprehensible and enjoyable.

Tufte covered quite a lot of ground in his 90 minute slot, some of the key points that I noted can be found below:

The Fundamentals of Analytical Design

Charles Minard’s visual representation of the 1812 Napoleonic march to Moscow (below) was basically unknown before Tufte introduced it to the world in his book The visual display of quantitative information (1983). Twenty-six years later, he uses it again in the fifth chapter of Beautiful Evidence to illustrate and explain in detail his six fundamental principles of analytical design. It is these key principles that Tufte used as the main section of the presentation:

Napoleon in Russia

  • Show comparisons, contrasts, differences.
  • Show causality, mechanism, explanation, systematic structure.
  • Show multivariate data; that is, show more than 1 or 2 variables.
  • Completely integrate words, numbers, images, diagrams.
  • Thoroughly describe the evidence. Provide a detailed title, indicate the authors and sponsors, document the data sources, show complete measurement scales, point out relevant issues.
  • Analytical presentations ultimately stand or fall depending on the quality, relevance, and integrity of their content.

Tufte also informed us of a seventh principle he is currently looking more closely at in his present research:

  • Show information adjacent in space, rather than stacked in time.

Sparklines – Intense, Simple, Word-sized Graphics

Tufte went on to demonstrate another of his creations sparklines. Tufte described them as “data-intense, design-simple, word-sized graphics”. Whereas the typical chart is designed to show as much data as possible, and is set off from the flow of text, sparklines are intended to be succinct, memorable, and located where they are discussed. He went on to show how they could be used for not only medical data, but to also better represent financial and economic data.


Quotes of the Night

Throughout the presentation I noted down some key quotes which particularly stood out:
“Be approximately right rather than exactly wrong.” – John W. Tukey
“Better to have the approximate answer to the right question than the right answer to the wrong question” – paraphrased by Tufte
“If you look after goodness and truth, beauty will take care of itself” – Eric Gill


If there was one point that I was to take away from the session it is this:

“Evidence is evidence, whether words, numbers, images, diagrams still or moving. the information doesn’t care what it is, the content doesn’t care what it is. It is all information. For readers and viewers the intellectual tasks remain constant, regardless of the particular mode of evidence. That is to understand and to reason about the materials at hand and to appraise their quality, relevance and integrity. It may be that as IT people and designers, we care a lot about the mode of production, but we shouldn’t deny ourselves the uses of ever possible mode and we shouldn’t segregate the information by the modes of production because whatever the user has to reason about, it doesn’t matter, it’s all content. That really is content orientated design.”

Interesting Links

Sketchnotes by evalottchen
Sketchnotes by Lucy Spence
Intelligence Squared Highlights

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